Contemporary design – styles and trends: Metabolism

Metabolism – (French. Metabolisme from the Greek. Metabole – change) – current in the architecture of the middle of XX century. , which replaced the functionalism of the international style of the 1930s-1940s.

The architectural language features of the metabolists were incompleteness, “misunderstanding”, relative “destructiveness” and openness of the structure of buildings for “dialogue” with the changing architectural, cultural and technological context of the urban environment. Metabolism is widely used by the technique of focusing attention on emptiness, with the aim of creating the effect of “materialization of attention”, the visual fixation of unbuilt and undeveloped spaces with the help of symbolic spatial structures. This creates some intermediate space (otherwise – mesop space), which, according to the theory of metabolism, is a missing link between architecture (as an extremely orderly habitat) and the environmental chaos of a changing urban environment or the “vacuum” of the natural landscape. In the structure of both individual buildings and their complexes, and even entire cities, developed under the influence of the ideas of metabolism, the temporal and permanent components are always clearly traced. Another hallmark of such architecture is its modularity, charm, most clearly illustrated by the example of Nakagin Capsule Tower.

Metabolism in general, and architects-metabolists in particular, have sought to develop the principles of constructivism in accordance with the concept of “variable space”.

The optimum structural basis of the buildings was combined with combinatorics – variational “cells”, which made architectural compositions more and more diverse (Neo-ritualism; new expressionism; organic architecture; futurological design). p>

Metabolists perceived the city as a living organism with all the inherent processes of the body – hence the exotic name of the movement. They divided the city into permanent and temporary elements – bones, blood vessels and living cells that change over time. The best work of metabolism has been recognized by the previously mentioned “Nakagin Capsule Tower” by Kisyo Kurokawa, included in the list of DOCOMOMO International architectural heritage.

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Contemporary Design – Styles and Directions: Organic Architecture

As an architectural style, organic architecture originated in the United States in the 1890s on the basis of the principles and assertions formulated by Louis Sullivan, which relied on the tenets of biology and evolutionary theory and was fully embodied in the works his adherent Frank Lloyd Wright in the 1930s and 1950s.

Organic architecture has become the newest approach to design based on three major factors: human, functional and natural environment.

Organic architecture, as opposed to the same architecture of functionalism, places the creation of naturally enclosed buildings and buildings that make the most of natural materials.

Wright proposed the concept, the main idea of ​​which was not to emphasize the individual parts of the architectural space as in the architecture of classicism, but rather its continuity. Built into the building, its appearance, which seems to flow from the inner meaning and content, combined with the rejection of formal rules – these are the characteristic features that reflect Wright’s architectural language. He first implemented these ideas in a series of Prairie Homes (like Robbie’s Chicago home).

Wright’s vision of creating massive public buildings was also original. In 1904, he first used a three-story, atrial-type structure to design a five-story Larkin office building in Buffalo, thus dramatically rejecting traditional corridor planning at that time.

The Guggenheim Museum in New York is perhaps the most striking example of a public building designed by Wright. In this project, Wright once again eliminated one of the original stereotypes. This time, the enfilade came under the knife as the main (and perhaps the only at the time) way of planning the museum structure. The exhibit at this museum is housed on a long ramp that spirals around a central atrium illuminated by natural light, which is served by a transparent glass dome.

In the mid-1930s, in promoting the idea of ​​meeting the personal and psychological needs of each individual, organic architecture quickly gained adherents not only in the United States but in Europe, as opposed to the extremes of the functionalist direction. .

Artist of Finnish descent Alvar Aalto becomes the main and perhaps the most striking representative here.

His designs have combined the rigor of features and spatial compositions with sophisticated artistry of images and designs woven into the nuances of local landscapes. Freedom of internal space expanded, preferably horizontally; unconventional combinations of modern materials such as reinforced concrete or glass with organic and more conventional wood, stone or brick – these are the main features that can be easily recognized by the creation of Aalto. Interestingly, his style is also called a restrained European counterpart to Wright’s work, while at the same time not compromising his own organic style.

The sharp rise in interest in organic architecture in the early 21st century. can be identified with the emergence of a new aesthetic paradigm, which, in contrast to the very Wright, still recognizes the importance, and ultimately the possibility, of juxtapositions of architectural and living forms.

Regionalism stands out as a branch of organic architecture. Built on the same principles of avoiding excessive asceticism, it promotes not blind and thoughtless replication of architectural forms and structures, but a creative revision of them according to local or regional conditions – landscapes, environment, historical background. Nowadays, regionalism successfully exploits the traditions of local cultures while operating on world-class achievements in the field of theoretical and practical architecture.

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Contemporary Design – Styles and Directions: Deconstructivism

Deconstructivism is the direction of modern architecture, formed as an independent destination in the late 80’s in America and Europe and then penetrated into contemporary design around the world.

Formally speaking, deconstructivism is a line of construction based on the application of the ideas of French philosopher Jacques Derrida; It was his reflections on the capacity for the existence of a “conflicting” architecture that denies and abolishes itself, which formed the basis of the theory of deconstructivism. In the future, these ideas were developed by Rem Kolkhas in his periodical. Deconstructivism was especially pronounced in Zahi Hadid’s (1993) Wind Station and the Guggenheim Museum in Frank Gehry’s Bilbao (1997). These buildings are considered to be major manifestations of this area of ​​architecture.

In general, contemporary design views the concept of deconstructivism as being contrary to the orderly rationality of modernism and postmodernism.

This area is often characterized as one of the most visually striking and intricate art forms ever developed. Deconstructivists focus on freedom of form, not functional needs. They strive to surprise the viewer, to leave in their imagination an image that will be remembered for a long time, and in most cases the interior is even stranger than the exterior.

Deconstructionist contemporary design is a pure reflection of the virtual world with its unconventional materials, contrasting colors, interpenetrating volumes and endless spaces.

Nowadays, the project of the rosy look є The only alternatives of the free architecture given to the style are super acceptance of the laws and rules of harmony of the middle ground. Virtualized and miraculous nter’ri with their laissez-faire, first for everything; set the magnet to take stereotypes. Sounds of the interior, furniture and architecture of the country with a complete view of the monotonous monotony and the need for standardization and repeating elements. For the interior and exterior in the style of deconstruction, the main characteristic signs are the internal shape, the contrast and color. The very same element to create peace and happiness is better at the home of the house and the house of the living. The most representative representatives of the whole family are directly involved in the royal architecture: Frank Jeri, Zaha Hadid, Rem Kіolhaіs, Piter Aizenman, Bernard Tmulle, Daniel Lіbeskind, architects Bureau “Cup Himelblau”.

Deconstructive – this is also the way the architects are fed to themselves.

This is the task of completing the right project for the future of the popular aesthetics of anthropocentrism and corinosity. I zagagi chi it is possible to take the clocks off, having seen the most important fundamental bases from: vertical, horizontal and vertical, – so, like, decentralized budova? The architecture for deconstruction – is a move. Tse “kam’yaniy text”, scho є transmitting the idea. The first architect is here a complete opportunity, a kind of self-image not verbally, but in the material and form of divine living …

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